Trabzon has blue sea, green nature, historical richess and uplands and mountains like Alps, and it established as a port city under the name of Trapezus, by Sinopes (From Sinop), who comes here in B.C. 756. However, as Sinop is also a Miletus colony city, it is said that Trabzon is established by Miletian colonies, not by Sinopes. Name of Trabzon passes in Anabasis (Retreat of Ten Thousands) named opus, written by Ksenophon (B.C. 430-355) for the first time. It is said that Trabzon word is originated from Trapezous word, which means “with plain” veya quadrangle shaped table in Greek language. City, which enters under Persian rule in B.C. 546, is ruled by Alexander the Great in B.C. 333 however, after this empire is broken into pieces in B.C. 323, it remains within boundaries of Pontus State, whose center is Amaseia in B.C. 280. After Romans destroy Pontus State, city enters under Roman Empire rule. Great public works are seen in the city especially during the period of emperor Hadrian (117-138). After Roman Empire is divided into two pieces in 395, it remains within boundaries of Eastern Roman Empire. Kommenos dynasty Alexius, who escapes from Istanbul upon invasion of Latins during Crusades in 1204, comes to Trabzon and establishes Trabzon Greek (Roman) Empire here. After Trabzon is captured by Fatih Sultan Mehmet, it is included into Ottoman Empire lands in 1461. It is known that walls, beginning from seaside and surrounding Trabzon, exist in B.C. 5th Century. Walls are extended in Byzantine period and repaired in Ottoman period. Trabzon Castle is composed of three sections such as Yukarıhisar (Citadel),Ortahisar and Aşağıhisar. The most important opus in Trabzon is Hagia Sophia Church, constructed between 1250-1260. This church is turned into the mosque in 1670, and it is used as military headquarters, hospital and store for some time during The First World War, structure is restored between 1958-1962 years and it is turned into museum in 1964. Church which is constructed at east-west direction with cross plan, is composed of narthex, cella and two lateral naves and three abscissas, of which those in sides are small and one in the middle is big. Hagia Sophia has three entrances with cloisters at north, south and west. Scenes, received from the Bible and Old Testament, are depictured on the frescos, decorating inside the church. Reliefs, showing creation of Adam and Eve, are located in the forantal on the southern entrance of the church. Quadrangle shaped Bell Tower, situated in the side of main structure, is constructed in 1427, Kostaki Residence, which is used as Trabzon Museum, is constructed by Italin architects, by the order of banker Aleksi Kostaki Teohyplaktos between 1898-1913 years. Residence is put into service as Trabzon Museum, in which archaeological and ethnographic works are exhibited, in 2001. Structure, which is located in Soğuksu district and known as Atatürk Kiosk, is constructed as summer kiosk by the order of Konstantin Kabayanidis between 1890-1903. Kiosk is turned into the museum in memory of Ataturk in 1964. There are many old structures inside the city. We can list some of them as follows: Aqueducts belonging to Byzantine period, Tabakhane Bridge, Zağnos Bridge, 1514 dated Gülbahar Hatun Mosque and Tomb, Arsenal, 1529 dated İskender Pasha Mosque, Küçük Ayvasıl Church, belonging to 7th Century; Maiden’s Monastery, Ortahisar / Fatih Mosque (Panaghia Chrysocephalos Church), which is turned from church to the mosque; Yeni Cuma Mosque, Nakip Mosque; Santa Maria Church, constructed between 1869-1874; Bazaar, Taşhan, and also Trabzon Houses under protection, are some of the old works in the city. The most important opus outside provincal center of Trabzon is Sumela Monastery, located in Altıdere Valley, within boundaries of Maçka county. A rock church is constructed in front of wide cavity like a cave of a steep rock for the name of The Virgin Mary by priest Barnabas and Sophronios in 385 and constitution of Sumela Monastery is provided. Monastery is extended during the period of Emperor Iustinianos (527-565), monastery gains great importance during the period of Trabzon Greek (Roman) Empire, established in 1204, and coronation of emperor III. Alexius (1349-1390) is organized here. After Trabzon enters under the control of Ottomans in 1461, Monastery continues its normal life until 1923. Monastery is abandoned due to the population Exchange with Greece after war. Sümela Monastery, which is neglected for long period, its taken under protection in 1972. Its required repairs and conversation works are performed and it is open for public visits in these days. Aqueducts are situated in the entrance of monastery and main, church, guesthouse, library, student rooms, kitchen, spring, guardian rooms, bell tower and the other structures are located inside the monastery. Frescoes, decorating internal and external walls of main church, contain scenes, received from the Bible and Old Testament. Besides Sumela Monastery, there are importants monasteries such as Kuştul, Kaymaklı and Vazelon in Trabzon region. Wonder of nature Uzungöl, which is located within boundaries of Çaykara County in 99km far from Trabzon and composed as a result of landslide, is one of the most popular touristic places of Trabzon and has equal beauties like European Alps. Furthermore, Karadağ, Hıdırnebi, Sis Mount, Kadırga, Sultan Murat, Düzköy, Maçka/Şolma Upland and the other uplands offer unique beauties to the visitors. Furthermore, these uplans witness great festivals in the summer season.
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