Sivas Turkey, History
It is understood from archeological excavations, made around Sivas that first settlement started in the region since prehistoric ages. The name of the city in ancient age is Sebasteia. This name is given to the city by Pythodoris,w ho is the daughter of Pontus king VI Mitradathes, reigning between B.C. 120-63. City enters under Roman Empire rule in B.C. 120-63. City enters under Roman Empire rule in B.C. 63. Name of Sivas is also originated from Sebasteia. City, developing in Roman period, becomes state center in Byzantine period. City is exposed to Sassanian and Arabian robberies in 7th Century. City enters under rule of Danişmend Oğulları and Anatolian Seljuks in 111th Century. City which is exposed to Mongol invasion in 1243, is ruled by İlhanlılar, Ottomans and after Timur invasions, it enters under Ottomans and after Timur invasions, it enters under Ottoman rule again in 1408. Neither wall nor trace of Sivas Castle, which is located in the southern-west of Sivas Castle, which is located in the southern-west of Sivas and repaired and used in Roman, Byzantine, Danışmentliler and Anatolian Seljuks period, reaches today. Sivas is the one of the cities, which have the most beautiful architectural structures of Anatolian Seljuks period. Some of the most important ones are as follows: 1197 dated Ulu Mosque, belonging to period of Danışmendliler, 1271 dated Gök Madrasah, belonigng to Anatolian Seljuks period, Buriciye Madrasah and Double Minaret Madrasah (Darülhadis), and also 1217 dated Izseddin Keykavus Madrasah and Hospital and Keykavus Tomb in the Hospital, 1347 dated Güdük Minaret (Şeyh Hasan Bey Tomb), belonging to the period of Eretna Oğulları, 1319 dated Ahi Emir Ahmet Large Tomb are some of other works of Seljuks period in the city. Some of the other works belonging to Ottoman period in the city are as follows: 1562 dated Meydan Mosque (Çukur Mosque), belonging to Ottoman period, 1580 dated Castle Mosque and Ali Ağa Mosque, Abdülvahap Gazi Tomb, belonging to II. Beyazit period, 1600 dated Kara Şemseddin Aziz Tomb, Mehmed Efendi Hamam, belonging to beginning of 16th Century,Meydan Bath, belonging to 16th century, 1576 dated Kurşunlu Hamam, 1573 dated Behram Pasha Hostelry and Subaşı Hostelry. Congress Building, Atatürk and Ethnography Musuem, Archaeological and Stone Arts Museum, Akaylar Residence Museum and İnönü Ethnography Museum are the museums, located in the city.
Divriği is situated in 168 km. far away Sivas through highway and it is known first settlement started in Divriği and surrounding since B.C. 1500. Name of city is called Tephrike for the first time in Byzantine period. It is known that this name changes and transforms into Divriği in the course of time. Furthermore, it passes as Divrik in some sources. Divriği, which is exposed to invasions of firstly Sasanians and the Arabians in 7th Century, enters under Turks rule after Battle of Malazgirt in 1071. Kemah, Erzincan,Şebinkarahisar and Divriği are given Mengücek Gazi. When Mengücek Oğulları is divided into two branches in 1142, branch of Divriği is ruled by Mengücek Bey Süleyman. Divriği is ruled by Anatolian Seljuks firstly and then respectively İlhanlılar, Memluks, Ottomans, Timur, again Memluks and finally it is included into Ottoman lands certainly in 1516. The most beautiful works, which are constructed by Mengücek Oğulları in Divriği, date between 1180-1270 years. The most beautiful opus, remaining from Mengücek Oğulları in Divriği, is Ulu Mosque and Hospital group of structures. This group of structures is composed of the mosque, which is constructed in 1228 by the order of Ahmed Shah, son of Mengücek Bey Süleyman Shah during the period of I. alaeddin Keykubat and Hospital, which is constructed by the order of his wife Melike turan in the same year and tomb, belonging to them. The architect of structure is Hürrem Shah from Ahlat. Mosque is composed of five naves, which are vertical to niche wall. It is covered with twenty five vaults and domes. 1241 dated epigraph with twenty five vaults and domes. 1241 dated epigraph and name of Ahmet from Tbilisi are situated on the pulpit. A portal is located in each of east, west and north walls of the mosque. These portals are decorated with herbal motifs with rich reliefs. It is understood from the epigraph at the gate of Hospital near the Mosque that Hospital is consturcted for Hürrem Shah by the order of Melike Turan. Hospital has a gothic style Portal in the western direction. Ahmed Shah and his wife Melike Turan are buried in the tomb with domes at the north east corner of the Hospital. 1181 dated Castle Mosque, belonging to Mengücel Oğulları, Aşağı Bath, repaired in 1667, Bekir Çavuş Bath, belonging to 13th Century, 1241 dated Kemankeş Tomb, 1196 dated Kamerüddin Tomb are some of other works in Divriği county. Castle, which is located on the rocky place at the north of Divriği, is constructed in 1236-1237 by Ahmet Shah, son of Süleyman Shah from Mengücük Oğulları. Castle is composed of citadel and bailey. Walls of the castle have been demolished substantially.