Antique Sardes site, which is the capital city of Lydia Kingdom, is located in the vicinity of Salihli country, in Manisa Province. Coin is minted in this city by Lydians in B.C. 7th Century for the first time in the history. “Royal Road”, starting from Susa, which is a city of Persian Empire in Iran, fnisked in Sardes. This road is in the length of 2575 km. City lives its most prime period in B.C. 7th and 6th Century. Great public works are made in the city in Hellenistic and Roman ages. The first archeological excavations in Sardes are made by USA scientists between 1910-1914 years and unearthed works are moved to America and exhibited in Metropolitan Museum in New York. Excavations here are ceased for long period and excavations are started again by USA scientists in 1958. Today, works unearthed from Sardes excavations, are exhibited in Manisa Museum. Temple of Artemis in Sardes ancient city are constructed in three stages. Its first stage coincides to B.C. 300, second stage coincides to B.C. 175-150 and three stage, coincides to A.D. 150. Cella of the temple is divided into two parts with a wall in such final stage, while this section is consecrated to goddess Artemis, other section is presented to Faustina, who is wife of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (138-161) and divinized after her death and it is turned into a worshipping area. Architectural remains in the vicinity of the southeastern corner of the temple belong to a church, constructed in A.D. 4th Century. The other important structures in Sardes ancient city are Synagogue and Gymnasium, restored and constructed in A.D. III. Century; Theatre and Stadium, constructed in B.C 300 and modified in Roman Age, and also Byzantine Church, House with Bronze are some of the other architectural remains in the ancient city. There are hundreds of tumulus belonging to Lydian period at the lowland between Sardes and Lake of Marmara. Lydia Kingdom comes into existence with king Giges in B.C. 680. Lydians enter under Persian rule after Kroisos is beaten by Persian King II. Kyrus in 546. They live under Persian rule within the period,passing until B.C. 333 when Alexander the Great beats Persian King III. Dareius. Lydian Civilaziton survives until B.C. 300.
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