Turkey Tours

Şanlıurfa, TURKEY

Round structures, belonging to B.C. 10 5000, are unearthed in the excavations, which are made in Göbekli Hill around Urfa. Thus, Urfa has a history for twelwe thousand five hundred years as of now and also is also known as “City of Prophets” because prophets such as Abraham, Ayoub and Shoaib live in this city. Urfa is established on the territories, called “Fertile Crescent” in the archaeological literature because it is a region, from which culture and citizenship is spread into the world wide. Region is ruled firstly by Hurrians in B.C. 1500 and then resğectively Mitannians, Hittites, Assyrians, Urartians, Medians, Persians, Alexander the Great and Seleucians. Edessa name is used instead of Urhay/Urfa by beginning from Seleucians period. Syrians establish Osrhoene Kingdom, whose capital city is Urfa in B.C. 132. Urfa becomes colony of Roman Empire during the period of emperor Caracalla (211-217)in A.D. 216. After Roman Empire is divided into two pieces in 395, Urfa remains within Eastern Roman Empire lands. Urfa goes between Arabians and Eastern Romans by beginning from 640. City is ruled by Seljuks in 1087. Urfa Shire is established in 1098 during I. Crusade. Later on, city is ruled respectively by Artuqidsr, Ayyubids and Anatolian Seljuks. After Mongol, Timur invasions, Memluk and Akkyounlu rules continue. Urfa is included into Ottoman lands in 1516. We can list some of the important historical works in the city as follows: Urfa Castle is constructed in Seleucians period and as it is destroyed in the subsequent periods, it is reconstructed in Abbasids period in 814. Castle undergoes repair in Ayyubids,Memluks, Akkoyunlular and Ottoman period. It is stated in the epigraph, on two columns with Corinthian head in the castle that these columns are erected between 240-242. Furthermore, these columns are subject to the myth, causing the constitiution of Sacred Fish Lake in Urfa. The structure, whose construction date is not known certainly, and which is transformed into the church in 5th Century while it is an old panteis temple or synagogue, and named as Red Church as it is constructed from the red marble, is turned into the mosque under the name of Ulu Mosque after Arabian invasion in 7th Century. Semi Dome, Halil-ür Rahman Lake, Rıdvaniye Mosque, constructed in 1736, Ayn-ı Zeliha Lake, Mevlüdü Halil Mosque, constructed in 1736, Ayn-ı Zeliha  Lake, Mevlüdü Halil Mosque, cave, in which Prophet Abraham was born, Has Padishah Mosque, constructed in 1499, are located around Sacred Fish Lake, which is the symbol of Urfa. Moreover, Nimetullah Mosque (Ak Mosque), constructed in 1500, Eski Ömeriye Mosque, constructed in 1301, 1709 dated Yusuf Pasha Mosque and historical hostelries, hamams, madrasahs, bazaars, churches, constructed during Ottoman period and Urfa houses and residences are the other important architectural structures in the province. Şanlıurfa Museum, in which archaeological and ethnographic works are exhibited, is among the places, which are required to be visited in the city. Also,Ataturk Dam, which is the pride source of our country, is located within boundaries of Şanlıurfa province, with its new name, which is the center of GAP. (THE sOUTHEASTERN aNATOLia Project)


History of Harran, which is located in 47 km south of Şanlıurfa and known with local conic houses, date back very ancient ages. Name of Harran passes in the tablets witg cuneiform scripts in B.C. 2000. Moreover, it is said that Prophet Abraham lives in this city for a time before he goes to Paletsine. Old sources mention about existence of Sin Temple destroyed in A.D. 382. Church is constructed here in 5th Century. Iustinianos (527-565) renewes walls, surrounding the city, in 6th century. There are 187 bastions and seven gates on the wall in the lengt of 4km. Five of these gates are visible. Musul Gate is located in the east; Halep Gate is located in the west; Aslanlı Gate is located in the north; Rakka and Roman Gate are located in the south. Furthermore, palace, which is constructed during the period of Umayyad sultan II. Mervan, is located within the citadel in the southern-east of the wall