The place where Grand Bazaar is located, was in the position of trade center in Byzantine period. Mehmed The Conqueror get Covered Bazaar and Sandal Bazaar constructed between 1455-1461 in order to enrich the economic life in the city, which he makes capital city after conquest of Istanbul. Then, Grand Bazaar is constituted with shops and hostelries, which are constructed around these bazaars. There are 24 hostelries, 440 shops and 65 streets within the bazaar. Furthermore, bazaar has 18 gates, of which 8 gates are big and 10 gates are small. Bazaar has witnessed many fires and earthquakes and undergone many repairs up to now.
Süleymaniye Mosque and Social Complex
It is constructed between 1550-1557 by Sinan The Architect by the order of Süleyman The Magnificent. Mosque is the semiskilled period of Sinan The Architect. It is entered into outer courtyard is surrounded with cloisters with domes, carried by the columns. There is a rectangular water tank with a fountainn in the middle of courtyard. Mosque has four minarets and its two minarets have three minaret balconies and the other two minarets.. It is entered into the mosque from three gates, of which one is from the front and the others are from sides. Mosque has a plan, which is close to square, and it is in the sizes of 60x68m. Main dome is 53 km ground clearance and diameter of the dome is 26,5m. Main dome is placed on four main archways based in on four elephant feet. There is one semi dome on each of niche and entrance gate. Four columns are also placed between elephant feet in two sides within the mosque. Thus, inner space in enlarged with five domes, which are placed to each of archways, connected to these columns to these columns and much more community enables praying. There are 138 windows in the mosque. There are boards, composed of 16th Century Iznik tiles in two sides of niche Pulpit, niche, muezzin and Sultan Messes within the mosque are marmoreal and reflect the magnificent models of the workmanship. Dome has hand-drawn decorations. Scripts within the mosque belong to Ahmet Karahisari and Hasan Çelebi. There are structures, composed of Evvel Madrasah, Sani Madrasah, School of Medicine, Rabi Madrasah, Salis Madrasah, Hamam, Darul Kurra, Tomb of Süleyman The Magnificent, Tomb of Hürrem Sultan (Roxelane), Chamber of Tomb guardian and Tomb of Sinan The Arcitect other that the mosque within Süleymaniye Social Complex. Evvel Madrasah and Sani Madrasah are used as Süleymaniye Library at the present time.
Kariye (Caria) Museum
Chora Monastery Church
Caria, situated in Edirnekapı district wihin Istanbul walls, is derived from “Chora”, which means outside the city or rural area in ancient Greek language. Although its construction date is not known certainly, it is known that there is a chapel here previously. Caria Church is also constructed with the monastery in 536 during the period of Emperor Iustinianos I. (527-565). The church is destroyed in the iconization period (724-843), and it is repaired in various periods. Moving imperial dynasty into Blahernai Palace in Comnenuses Periods (1081-1185), organization of some rituals in Caria Church which is close to the palace, increases the importance of the church. Consequently, Maria Doukania, who is moter-in-law of emperor I. Alexios (1081-1118) takes the church under her protection and gets ruined church restored. Church is plundered and witnesses a great destruction during Latin Invasion (1204-1261) Church has its prime period during the reign of emperor Andronikos II. Palaiologos (1282-1328). Theodoros Metokhides, who is the greay government man, politician, man of letters and scholor in that period, gets the church repaired substantially. A vestibule is added into north wing of the church, composed of northex and main space; Parekklesion, which is a narrow and long chapel with single nave next to south front and external narthex, extending along the west front. Furthermore, mosaics and frescoes, decorating the parekklesion, are made in this period. The richest mosaic and frescoes of last golden age of Byzantine are illustrated in the mosaics, decorating wall, arcway, vault domes in the internal and external narthex. The life history of The Virgin Mary are illustrated in the north wing of internal narthex and important events of the Holy Family, birth and baptisim of Jesus are illustrated in the north wing of external narthex. Miracles and performed affairs of Jesus are located in south wings of both narthexes. Some subjects of Old Testament, which are considered as very important by Christianity, are depicted in the frescoes, decorating Parekklesion. Scene of Death of the Virgin Mary(Koimesis) located on the gate in the main space, affects the audience particularly. Scenes of Resurrection (Anastasis) and The Last Judgment (Deesis) attracts attention wihth their sizes in Parekklesion. Scene of Resurrection (Anastasis) is the inarguable masterpiece of Christian picture art with its magnificence and picturesque. Furthermore, niches, located in inner walls of internal and external narthexes and Parekklesion, are used as grave for famous people.
After Istanbul is conquered in 1453 by Turks, Caria Church maintains its function for a period more. However, church is turned into the mosque by Hadım Ali Pasha, who is grand vizier of Sultan II. Beyazit (1481-1512) in 1511. A minaret is added into south edge of external narthex. It is not touched to the mosaics and frescoes. Only they are covered with plaster and wooden shutters. Caria is turned into the museum in 1945. Structure undergoes a great repair between 1948-1958 and all mosaics and frescoes are cleaned and brought out into the open.
Fethiye Museum / Pammakaristos Monastery Church
Pammakaristos Monastery Church, located in Fatih Country Çarşamba quarter, is constructed on behalf of the Virgin Mary, by Mihail Glabas, Tarkaniotes, who is one of the prominent charar the narthex, main space is covered with a drummed dome with 12 windows. Its main dome has 12 slices and mosaic image of Jesus is located in its middle section and mosaic images of the prophets in Old Testament are located in the slices. There are mosaic depictures, containing scene of Deesis (judgement day), composed of Jesus, The Virgin Mary and Ioannes in the abscissa section. Furthermore, there are mosaics and frescoes, containing Saint depictures in the archways and vaults. The structure is used as women’s monastery after conquest of Istanbul and used a Rum Patriarchate for 150 years of 1455. It is turned into the mosque by Ahmet Pasha at the end of 16th Century (1590) and it is called “Fethiye Mosque” in memory of conquest of Azerbaijan and Georgia. Mosque is damaged in the fire of Balatkapı in 1640. Mosque undergoes repair in 1845 according the epigraph, located on the south gate of the mosque. Mosque, undergoing a great repair between 1936-1938 years, is opened for praying just in 1960s. Parekklesion, which is the grave chapel of the church, is repaired in the same years, all mosaics and frescoes inside it are brought out into the open by American Byzantine Institue. Section of Parekklesion is open for public visits under the name of “Fethiye Museum” at the present time.
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