Miletus, which is a port city in the place where Büyük Menderes ricer flows into Aegean Sea in Archaic Age, remains very far from the sea at the present because of filling the sea with alluvial soils, brought by the river. First settlements here date back B.C. 200 years.City gets rich very much due to colonies, established in Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. Miletus is known as Milavanda in Hittite language. It lives its most prime period in B.C. 7th and 6th Century. Foundations of positive sciences are laid in Miletus. All of philosopher of nature such as Thales, Anaximenes, Anaximander, historian and geographer Hecate, city planner architect Hippodamus, architect of Hagia Sophia Isidore are form Miletus. Thales calculates solar eclipse in B.C. 585 in advance and informs it to the people. Miletus city rebels against Persian Empire and burns the freedom torch in the Western Anatolia. However, it could not be succesful. After Persians, occupying the city in B.C. 494, rob all treasuries both in Miletus and also in Didima, they set city of Miletus, the leader of riot, up on fire and destroy it. After Persians demolish city of Miletus completely, Hippodamos prepares a proper plan for city of Miletus. City is occupied by Alexander the Great in B.C. 334. City witnesses the public works in Hellenistic and Roman ages. City losses its importance in Byzantine period because of filling the sea with alluvial soils, borught by Büyük Menderes river. The first archeological excavations in Miletus are started by German Th. Wiegand in 1899. Excavations are ceases during the First and Second World Wars. Excavations are carried out again by German scientists in these days. Works unearthed from excavations, are exhibited in Milet Museum. The most magnificent structure of the city is theatre. Theatre, constructed in B.C. 4th Century, enlarged in Hellenistic period and while it has a capacity with 3500 people,its capacity is increased to 15000 people in Roman age. Hill, on which theatre is located, is surrounded with walls and turned into a castle in Byzantine period. There is a hostelry, belonging to 15th Century, in the plain place in front of theatre. Bouleuterion building, constructed between B.C. 175-164, had a capacity with 1500 people. South Agora is constructed in A.D. 2nd Century and its North Gate, which is unearthed during the excavations,is moved to Berling and it is erected again exhibited in Pergamon Museum there. Baths, which are constructed by the order of II. Faustina, who is wife of Emperor Marcus Aurelius, and called with her own name, are in the best protected position. North Agora structure, constructed in the classical period, is enlarged in Hellenistic and Roman periods. Delphinion structure, which is constructed in Hellenistic period and modified in Roman age, is consecrated to Delphinion (dolphin), which is sacred animal of god Apollo. Gymnasium, constructed in A.D. 2nd Century, is composed of propylon and fice reading chambers and one palestra. Great Port Monument, constructed in B.C. 31, is erect in the memory of emperor Augustus, winning Action war. Stadium, constructed in B.C. 150, is enlarged in Roman age and its capacity is increased to 15000 people. Temple of Serapis, belonging to A.D. III. Century, West Agora belonging to Hellenistic period, Roman Baths, belonging to A.D. I. Century, Bishop Church belonging to A.D. 5th Century, Nymphaion, constructed in A.D. 2nd Century, Capito Baths, constructed in Emperor Claudius period, Temple of Asclepius and Synagogue are some of the other important structures in the city. Isa Bey Mosque constructed in 1404, is one of the most beautiful models of marble workmanship in Miletus site, which is called Balat in Seljuks period. Mosque, located within the social complex, composed of madrasah, soup kitchen and graveyard, is constructed by the order of Ottoman commander Ilyas Bey.
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