Researches, which are made around Mardin, show that first settlements here date back B.C. 4000 years. Region is ruled firstly Hurrians, Mitannians, Hittites, by beginning from B.C. 2000, and respectively by Assyrians in B.C. 1200, Urartians in B.C. 9th Century. While city is ruled respectively by Persians, Macedonians, Seleucians, Romans, Sasanians, Byzantines; Arabians in 7th Century, Hamdani Dynasty in 9th Century, Seljuks in 11th Century and then Artuqids, İlhanlılar, Karakoyunlular, Akkoyunlular, Mardin is included into Ottoman lands just in 1517. As for name of Mardin, Ammianus Marcellinus, living in A.D. 4th century, mentions about that there is a castle, which is called Mazide, here and Syrians call this castle as Marde, Arabians call it as Maridini. Mardin name must be the changed form of these words. Mardin, having a rich historical and cultural heritance, is declared as an urban site area and it is in the position of an unique outdoor musuem “museum city”. We can list some of the old works in the city, as follows: Mardin Castle is constructed by Hamdanians Family, which is an Arabian dynasty, in 975-976. Castle, which is located on a rock hill in the height of 1180/1200m., is also famous owing to being a castle, which is very difficult to be captured due to its position. Only some part of walls reaches today. Some castle remains belonging to Artuqid and Akkoyunlu period are situated in the castle. Ulu Mosque, which is constructed during the period of Artuqid and Akkoyunlu period are situated in the castle. Ulu Mosque, which is constructed during the period of Artuqid sultan Necmettin İlgazi in 1170, attracts attention especially with various decorations on it and minaret with scripts. Şehidiye Mosque is constructed by Melik Mansur Nasreddin 1214, its minaret, which is added in 1916, is attractive. Melik Mahmud Mosque, which is constructed by the order of Artuqid Melik Mahmud in 1367 dated Hamidiye Mosque, Reyhaniye Mosque and Arabian Mosque, belogning to 16th Century, Hacı Ömer Mosque, belonging to 18th Century are some of the other mosques in the city. madrasahs constitute the most important works in the city. Zinciriye madrasah is constructed by the order of Artuqid Melik Necmeddin İsa in 1385 and madrasah with two floors, is composed of court, mosque, tomb and other sections. Although construction of Kasımiye Madrasah is started at the end of Artuqids period, it is called with this name because it is completedduring the period of Kasım (1487-1502), son of Cihangir Akkoyunlular period. Madrasah with two floors is composed of court, mosque, tomb. Rıdvaniye Madrasah, which is also known with the names of Hatuniye and Sitti Radviyye Madrasah, is constructed by the order of Artuqid sultan Kudbeddin İlgazi between 1176-1185. Madrasah with two floors is composed of court with sheds and cloisters and mosque and tomb. Şehidiye Madrasah, which is constructed by the order of Artuqid Necmeddin Ghazi between 1239-1259, gives the scheme of a madrasah, having a small mosque with iki naves and with the court with cloisters and two sheds. The most important structure, belonging to the Christianity period, in Mardin is Deyrülzafaran Monastery in 5km. far from city. Monastery is the religious center of Ancient Syrian Community. Syrians regard themselves as the first Christian people. Monastery is established at the end of A.D. 4th Century. It is composed of structures with three floors, surrounding a rectangular interior courtyard. It reaches its current situation with outbuildings, which are made in the various periods and undergoes repairs in 18th Century. There are three churchess and chapel, Cemetery of Saints containing grave of 52 Syrian patricians, Ceremony seciton within the monastery and also monastery has a guesthouse. Besided these structures, a lot of old mosque, madrasah, hamam, hostelry, small dervish lodge, tomb, fountain, monastery, church structure and Mardin houses are the other important structures, which are required to be visited, in the city. Mardin Museum, serving in an old structure, is among the places, which are required to be visited. Midyat county, bounded to Mardin, is an important county, which is required to be visited, because of its architectural buildings and silver engraving.