Kayseri is established on a lowland in the northern foothills of Erciyes Mount in Middle Anatolia and it is in the position of an industrial city and first settlements around Kayseri date back B.C. 2500 years. This is proved by the findings, obtained from excavations, which are made in Kültepe in northern-east of the city. Furthermore, Kültepe is developed as Assyrian Trade Colony center between B.C. 1950 – B.C. 1750 and script is started to be used in Anatolia in this period for the first time and thus, Anatolia enters into history ages. Hittite and Phrygian settlements are also seen in the region. The first establishment place of Kayseri city is the top a hill in 2km. southern-west of the city. Here is called “Mazaka” City, which enters under rule of respectively Persians in B.C. 546; Alexander the Great Empire in B.C. 333, falls to the share of Seleuceians when this empire is broken into pieces in A.D. 323.While Roman emperor Tiberius (14-37) makes Cappadocia as Roman state, he calls the city as Caesarea / Kaisareia ( County of Caesarea ). City is exposed to Arabian invasions in 7th Century, city is ruled by Seljuks soon after Battle of Malazgirt in 1071.
It is exposed to Mongol invasion in 13th Century and then city changes hands from time to time in the beylics period and it is included into Ottoman lands certainly during the reign of Yavuz Sultan Selim. Old structures, located in the city, belong to Seljuks and Ottoman period. Ulu Mosque, constructed during the period of Seljuks Sultan I. Gıyaseddin Keyhüsrev in 1206, Kölük Mosque, constructed in 12th Century, Hond Hatun Social Complex, composed of mosque, madrasah, tomb and bath during the period of Sultan II. Gıyaseddin Keyhüsrev in 1238, Döner large tomb, constructed for the name of daughter of sultan, Shah Cihan Hatun between 1276-1279, Çifte large tomb, constructed in 1247 by Ayyubids for the name of his daughter Melik-ül Ebubekir; and Melike Adiliye, who is wife of II. Keykavus, Kurşunlu Mosque, which is said to be constructed by Sinan the Architect, 1431-1432 dated Hatuniye Madrasah, Çifte Madrasah, composed of Nursing Home, constructed by the order of Gevher Nesibe in 1205, and school of medicine, constructed by the order of I. Gıyaseddin Keyhüsrev, Sahibiye Madrasah, constructed by the order of Emir Saraceddin Bedri in 1238 and Sırçalı Large Tomb, Covered Bazaar, Vezirhan, Pamukhan, Paşa Bath and Kadı Bath are some of the old architectural structures in Kayseri.
Furthermore, Karatayhan, which is located between Kayseri and Malatya, outside Kayseri province on the trade roads, is constructed by Seljuk vizier Celaleddin Karatay in 1240-1241 years and Great Sultan Hostelry, located between Kayseri and Sivas,is constructed during the period of I. Alaeddin Keykubad between 1232-1236. Alayhan, located between Kayseri and Aksaray, is also one of the other important structures in Kayseri. Moreover, Archaeological Museum and Ethnography Museum and Ataturk Museum, in which various cultures are exhibited from chalcolithic period to Byzantine period, are the other places, which are required to be visited, in Kayseri.