History of Ankara, Places to visit in Ankara, Travel Guide Ankara, Turkey, Ankara landmarks, Ankara Travel Guide. Findings, obtained from excavations, which are made in Ankara and in tje surrounding, show that settlements here date back prehistoric ages. Although there are small scaled settlements belonging to Hittite period. (B.C. 1600-1200) in the vicinity. of city, important settlements are appeared in Phyrgia period. It is seen that city is ruled by respectively Galats in B.C. 3rd Century and Roman Empire in B.C. 25. City develops substantially in Roman period. After Roman Empire is divided into two pieces in 395, Ankara remains in Eastern Roman territories. While city is ruled by Anatolian Seljuks in 1147, city is included into Ottoman territorie in 1360. City, which is captured by Timur in 1402, enters under Ottomans rule certinly during the reign of Çelebi Mehmet in 1411. Ankara becomes capital city of Republic of Turkey in 1923. Name of Ankara is derived from “Ancyra”, which is its first name in the history and means ship anchor. Afterwars, this name changes as “Angora”, and then Ankara finallly.
One of the most important structures in the city is Temple of Augustus, which is also called Ankara Temple (Monumentum Ancyranum). Successes of emperor Augustus (B.C. 27-A.D. 14) are explained in Latin and Greek language on the wall of temple, constructed between B.C 25-20 years. Temple is modifief with some additions in A.D. 2nd Century. Hacı Bayram Mosque is constructed at the beginning of 15th Century at northern-west corner of the temple, which is turned into the church in Christianity period. Roman Baths, belonging to Emperor Caracalla (A.D. 211-217) period, are protected well. Iulianus Column is erected in 362 in order to commemorate passage of Emperor Iulianus (361-363) from Ankara. Alaeddin Mosque, belonging Anatolian Seljuks period, is constructed in Citadel in 1198-1199. Aslanhane Mosque, dated 1290, is constructed in Beylics period. 1565 dated New Mosque, beloning to Ottoman period, Zincirli Mosque, construct during the reign of Fatih Sultan Mehmet, 1427 dated Karacabey Mosque, 1427 dated Hacı Bayram Mosque, Mahmut Paşa Bazaar, constructed at the end of 15th Century, are the important historical structures in the city. Furthermore, Ottoman period houses are seen in Ic Kale, Samanpazarı, Hacı Bayram and Hacı Dogan districts. It is not known when Ankara Castle, which is one of the thought structures when it is mentioned about Ankara, is also one of the important places, which are required to be visited. “The Museum of Anatolian Civilizations”, which is constrituted as a result of Mahmut Paşa Bazaar and Kurşunlu Hostelry, is one of the richest museums of the world, in which works of paleolithic, neolithic, chalcolithic, bronze age, iron age, assyrian Colonies Age, Hittite, Phyrygia, Urartu, Late Hittite, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuks and Ottoman periods are exhibited. Ethnıgraphy Museum, which is constructed between 1925-1930 years, is a rich museum, in which valuable and various ethnographic works are exhibited. Roman Bath-Outdoor Museum, Picture and Sculpture Museum are the other museum, located in the city. Moreover, Anıtkabir/Mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, founder of Republic of Turkey, which is symbol of Ankara and is constructed between 1944-1953 and Anıtkabir Museum are the visitation places of domestic and foreign visitors, coming to Ankara.
It is near Yassıhöyük Village, bounded to Polatlı County of Ankara. Its original name is Gorda. Perhaps, it is supposed that it becomes Gordion by adding “ion” suffix, which means “place” in Helen language. Gordion is the capital city pf Phyrgians. Phrygians (B.C. 750- B.C. 300) is a folk with Balkan origin. Firstly they come into existence in B.C. 750. They establish a state in a region between Eskişehir and Afyon. Their first emperor is Gordias. Their last emperor is famous Midas, who becomes subject of many myths. Cimmerians terminate Phyrgian State in B.C. 695. However, Phyrigian Art continues until B.C. 300. Remains, unearthed as a result of excavations, made in Gordion, show all features of Phyrgian architecture. Furthermore, there are many tumulus around Gordion. Some of them are excavated. Metal and wooden works, unearthed from excavations of Great Tomb of King Midas, show how Phrygians are advanced in these art branches. Works of Archaic Bronze, Hittite, Phyrygian, Persian, Lydian, Hellenistic and Roman periods, which are unearthed from Gordion excavations, are exhibited in Gordion Musuem.