A large part of these settlements were built by carving deeply down the soft tuff. Although I can not find much information about the construction techniques from the tool marks formed during the carving, it is evident that the upper floors of the underground settlements are more rough and irregular and more regular and careful towards the lower floors. We do not yet have enough knowledge about how many people live in these underground settlements. Since the Cappadocia Region has been subjected to various attacks in the past, the aim of these cities is to ensure that people are sheltered temporarily in the event of more danger. Underground cities are also linked to hidden gateways with almost every house in the area. People who have lived in the area have opened new rooms for the need to get more emptiness, prepared rooms, traps and difficulties to pass to the various places of the houses. Thus, the corridors and galleries multiplied and brought underground cities to the water.
The spaces in the underground cities of hundreds of rooms are connected to each other by long galleries and labyrinth-like tunnels. The reason for the gallery being low, narrow and long is to limit the movements of the enemy. In addition, to light the walls of these corridors to burn candles and small holes to put candles. The gold wool obtained from the flax seeds of Kandilli was given the so-called ‘bezir’. Until now, no underground settlements have been found in the place that produces the quilt oil. It was probably brought from the outside. The heat radiating from the oil burning candles in the lamps also met the need for warming. There are defensive stones that separate the spaces from each other. These stones, which can not be opened from the inside, have a diameter of 1 – 2.5 m and a weight of 200 – 500 kg. The hole in the center is used to open and close the door, to see the enemy who can come from behind, or to attack the enemy with weapons such as arrows and spears.
Another kind of door in the underground cities is the wooden ones. These doors, which were made for non-defense purposes and mostly for private ownership, were two or three sliding doors. The oldest floors of the underground cities are generally the entrance floors and are used more as barns. The reason is that it is difficult to lower the animals down. In the lower part of the barn walls, which are carved quite roughly, holes are made to connect the cavities and animals that the animals can feed. In the underground cities, which are lighter in summer in summer as well, in the winter, beech dyes and kitchens are generally on the upper floors. The must-have grapes obtained from the province are processed into wine and they are mostly built on the upper floors so that the grapes can be easily transported. When the kitchen numbers are taken into consideration, it turns out that not every family is a kitchen, they use kitchens in common. In the kitchens there are cooking hobs called “tandır” which are still used today in Cappadocia towns and villages. In addition, there are small cavities in order to place the food cubes regularly on the edges of the kitchen. There are still lots of barley, wheat, corn and various vegetables and beer and wine produced in the region. There are communication holes in the ceilings and bases of the rooms between the floors, for communication purposes and not exceeding 5-10 cm in diameter. Thanks to these holes, the underground city people do not have to pass through long tiring tunnels, and they are able to take defensive measures easily and quickly at extraordinary times. The toilet has not yet reached full light. Only Tatların and Güzelyurt (Gelveri) underground cities have found a toilet.
In these settlements there are even seating units, even cemetery areas – for use in extraordinary times, which are very old. Whether these graveyards belong to religious officials or important people has not yet been clarified. Underground settlements are built with the purpose of ventilation and communication, often connected to the basement of the underground settlement. These ventilation chimneys were also used as a water well. The mouths of some water wells are unconnected with the earth to prevent the enemy from poisoning the water. Although it is claimed that the underground settlements are connected to each other by tunnels, there is no evidence yet to confirm it today. Although there are settlements belonging to the Prehistoric Period in the Cappadocia Region, it is not yet known whether they are connected with the underground cities. However, given the geological extent of the region, people of the Prehistoric Period must be sheltered in artificial rock shelters consisting of at least a few rooms. As a result, it would not be so wrong to date the underground settlements in the light of available information in the same way as the first civilizations in the region. Because it is not difficult for people of Prehistoric Period who know the stone industry quite well to have smooth soft tuff with simple tools. Underground settlements continuously expanded by different communities in Cappadocia, which consisted of a few rooms during this period, the present cul-de-sac has been destroyed by all the archaeological traces of the previous cult. However, it should be noted that the most common use of underground cities was in the Byzantine Period.
It is on the Nevşehir-Niğde motorway, 19 km away from Nevşehir. The underground city, which was opened in 1964, is located under the so-called “Kaymaklı Castle”. In Kaymakli village, whose antique name is ‘Enegup’, people have built their houses around the tunnel near the surface of the underground city. The people of the region still pass through these tunnels that are opened to the courtyards and use the appropriate places of the underground cities as pantry, warehouse, stables. Kaymaklı underground city Derinkuyu is different from underground city in terms of plan and establishment. Passages are narrow, low and inclined. The first floor of the eight-storey city was built by the Hittites, while the other floors were expanded by the Romans and Byzantines during the Arab-Persian attacks. It has been cleaned and illuminated four times that of the underground city that spans over two kilometers. Just as Derinkuyu is in the underground city, sliced stones have been manufactured from the carved species, which can be used to close the doors from the inside when attacking. The spaces are mostly surrounded by ventilation chimneys. There is a barn on the first floor of the underground city. The smallness of this place indicates that there must be stalls in the areas of the underground city that have not yet been cleaned. The slider to the left of the stall is stoned and passed to the church through a passage. On the right side of this corridor are chambers carved as daily living places. The church on the floor is two apses with one navel. There are baptisms in front of the apses and platforms to sit on the edges. It reinforces the idea that the cemetery on this floor is right next to the church, belonging to those with religious characteristics. This floor also has seating areas.
The most important places of the underground city are the 3rd place. Very dense andesite stone is very interesting on this floor where there are a lot of supplies, stores and kitchens. As a result of recent research it is understood that copper ore was used in grinding. This stone is an andesite lavas beneath the tuffs that are not brought from the outside but are open during the construction of the underground city. As it was needed, 57 crushing pits were opened in accordance with its function. Place the copper ore approximately 10 cm in size into the pits. Crushed with crushed stone and made ready for melting. This technique has been known since Prehistoric Period. Copper brought to Kaymaklı Underground City was most likely brought from a quarry between Aksaray and Nevşehir. (This is also used by one of the oldest settlements in the Cappadocia Region.) The abundance of food stores and cube sites on the fourth floor floors indicate that the people living in this underground city are regular economies.
The underground city is one of the largest underground settlements in the region, although it has not yet been thoroughly cleaned and only four floors have been removed. This is because, given the number of food stores spread over a small area, the possibility that a large number of people may have lived here is strengthening.