Furthermore, Girlevik Waterfall, located in 30km. southern-east of the city, is the popular touristic and resort place of the region with its natural beauty and coolness. Moreover, Erzincan Museum is located within Cultural Center in the city. Excavations, which are made on the tumulus around Erzurum, show that first settlements here date back B.C. 4000 years. City enters under rule of respectively Hittites after B.C. 1500, Urartians in B.C. 9th Century, Persians in B.C. 546; Alexander the Great Empire in B.C. 333, and after Alexander the Great Empire is broken into pieces in A.D. 323. Armenia Kingdom is established in this region of Anatolia, which falls to the share of Seleuceians. Later on, region is ruled respectively by Romans, Byzantines, Sasanians, Arabians and again Byzantines. Saltukoğulları Beylic is established in Erzurum region after Battle of Malazgirt in 1071. Anatolian Seljuks Sultan Rukneddin Suleyman II. (1196-1204) brings an end to Saltukoğulları Beylic in 1201. Erzurum, which is exposed to Mongol invasion in 1243 and Timur invasion in 1402, witnesses combats between Karakoyunlular and Akkoyunlular. Finally, it is included into Ottoman lands in 1514. Erzurum remains under Rusian invasion (February-1916-March 1917) during the First War. Erzurum hosts National Congress, organized in July 23, 1919 – August 17, 1919 in the first years of Independence War. We can list the historical structures,located in the city, as follows. Erzurum Castle belongs to Byzantine period and is constructed during the period of emperor Theodosios II (408-450) in 415 and undergoues repair repeatedly in the next periods. Only citadel is standing. Tepsi Minaret, which is constructed between 1124-1132 during the period of Saltukoğulları Beylic, is located within the castle. Yakutiye Madrasah, which is one of the most beautiful works in Erzurum, is constructed by the order of Hoca Cemalettin Yakut in 1315 during the period of İlhanlılar; Çifte Minaret Madrasah is also constructed during the period of İlhanlılar between 1285-1290 years. Furthermore, Ahmediye Madrasah, which is stated in its epigraph that it is constructed by Ahmet, son of Ali, in 1314, is among the important madrasah structures in Erzurum. Ulu Mosque is constructed by the order of Mehmet Kızılaslan in 1179 during the period of Saltukoğulları. Lala Mustafa Pasha Mosque is constructed by Sinan the Architect by the order of Beylerbeyi Lala Mustafa Pasha in 1562. Murat Pasha Mosque is constructed by the order of Kuyucu Murat Pasha in 1572. Furthermore, Ali Pasha Mosque, constructed by the order of Ali Pasha in 1595; 1558 dated Ayas Pasha Mosque, constructed by the order of Ayas Pasha; Bakırcı Mosque, constructed by the order of Mustafa Ağa in 1720; Caferiye Mosque, constructed by the order of Haci Cafer in 1645; İbrahim Pasha Mosque, constructed by the order of Governor Hacı İbrahim Pasha in 1748; Gürcü Mehmet Pasha in 1648; and Three large tombs, composed of Emir Saltuk Large Tomb, belonging to 12th century and two other large tombs, located near it and belonging to 14th century, 1308 dated Karanlık Large Tomb; Mehti Abbas Large Tomb, belonging to 15th Century; Gümüşlü Large Tomb, Cimcime Sultan Large Tomb and Rabia Hatun Large Tomb, belonging to 14th Century; Ahil Baba Large Tomb, belonging to 16th Century, 1561 dated Üstem Pasha Bazaar, Gümrük Hostelry, Kamburoğlu Hostelry, Lala Pasha Hamam, Boyahane Hamam, Çifte Göbek Hamam, Murat Pasha Hamam are some of the other old works, located in Erzurum. Moreover, Erzurum Museum, in which archaeological and ethnographic works are exhbited, Ataturk House Museum, and 23 july Congress Hall Museum are the museums, located in the city.