City is established under the name of Prusa between B.C. 229-182 by Bthynia King I.Prusias and it is named as Bursa within elapsed time. City, which is captured by Romans in B.C. 74, is conquered by Ottomans in 1326 and becomes capital city in 1335. City located in the foothill of Uludağ, is endowed with important architectural structures in the Ottoman Period. There are many works, belonging to Ottoman period, in the city. A social complex, composed of mosque, madrasah, hamam, and hospital, is constructed during the reign of Yildirim Beyazit in 1399 in the palace, where is called “Yildirim Hill” nowadays, and also Ulu Mosque, which is the first and biggest mosque of Ottomans, is constructed in 1396-1400 years during the reign of Yildirim Bayezit. There are mosque and madrasah within the social complex, constructed by architect Hacı İvaz Pasha by the order of Celebi Mehmet in 1419 in Yesil location. Madrasah serves as Ethnography Museum nowadays. Yesil Tomb (1421), belonging to Sultan Celebi Mehmet and constructed in 1421, is located next to th mosque. There are mosque, madrasah, hamam, soup kitchen and tomb within the social complex, constructed by the order of Sultan II. Murat in Muradiye location. There are 12 tombs, in which dynasty members are buried, in the courtyard of the mosque. Tombs of Ottoman sultans Osman Bey (1299-1324)) and Orhan Bey (1324-1362) are situated within the park in Tophane. I. Murat Hüdavendigar Mosque and Madrasah are located in Çekirge location, which is famous with the thermal springs. Furthermore, Tomb of Sultan I. Murat, who is martyred by Serbian in the battle area in 1389, is also located here. Moreover, Ottoman House, Ataturk Kiosk, Archeological Museum and Uludağ, which is skiing center, are some of the visitation places in Bursa.
Çakırca, Üyücek, Çiçekli and Karadin tumuleses, located around Iznik, which is a country of Bursa, show that first settlements here, date back B.C 2500 years.City is established under the name of Antigoneia in B.C. 316 by Antigonos, who is one of the commanders of Alexander the Great. Then, Lysimakhos names the city as Niceae due to the name of his wife. City enters under Roman rule in B.C. II.Century and first Consul meeting is organized here in 325 in the christianity period. Kutalmısoglu Suleyman captures the city in 1078 and it becomes the capital city. City passes under the control of Byzantines again in 1097 during I. Crusade. After Latins capture Istanbul during 4th Crusade in 1204, empire center of Byzantine is moved to Iznik and İznik becomes the capital city of Byzantine State until 1261. Iznik is captured during the reign of Sultan Orhan Bey in 1331 and includes into the boundaries of Ottoman Beylic. City is surrounded with walls, belonging to Roman and Byzantine periods, in the length of 4427m with 114 bastions and in the height of 10-13 m. It has four monumental ports, composed of Istanbul Gate, Lefke Gate, Yenisehir Gate ve Lake Gate. Theatre, constructed in the period of emperor traianus (A.D. 98-117) and Hagia Sophia Church, constructed in IV. Century, are located within the city. Church is turned into the mosque in 1331 and it is opened for public visits as monumental museum in these days. Furthermore, the important structures are remains of Coimesis Church, constructed in 11th Century and Hagios Trifanos Church, constructed after 11th Century, Baptisterium of VI. Century and Senate Palace remains in the lake coast; Berberkaya Grave Monument (Obelisk) around Elbeyli, Underground Grave Chamber (Hypoge) and Dört Tepeler Tumuluses. Some of other works,located in the country are 1333/34 dated Haci Ozbek Mosque, belonging to Ottoman Period, 1378/91 dated Yesil Mosque 1442/43 dated Mahmut Celebi Mosque, Nilufer Hatun Soup Kitchen, constructed in 1388 and serving as museum nowadays, 1332 dated Süleyman Pasa Madrasah, Yakup Celebi Small dervish lodge and Tomb, Big Hamam belonging to period of II. Murat, Ismail Bey Hamam, belonging to 14th Century and also Sarı Saltuk Tomb, Kırgızlar Tomb, tombs of Çandarlı Hayrettin, Ibrahim and Halil Pashas, Huysuzlar Tomb, Ahiveyn Tomb, Alaattin-i Mısri and Davud-u Kayseri Tomb, Abdulvahap Sancaktari Tomb, Iznik is famous with its tiles. The oldest and most beautiful models at the construction tile-making domain of Ottoman ceramic art are produced in Iznik tile workshops. Tile art in Iznik peaks and it lives its prime period in 16th Century. Many tile workshops, established in Iznik nowadays, attempt to keep the tile art alive.
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